Any satellite is launched for a purpose. For Azad-1 the purpose of the mission is to send a telescope in polar orbit (an orbit passing through the north and south pole) to image the outer layers of the sun. The development of the telescope is managed by PAYLOAD subsystem.
The telescope needs to be durable enough to survive in tough space conditions.A telescope is an optical system that converges light to a detector. The detector used is an electronic chip.
Nano Satellites with a mission time of around 1 year use Solar panels for generation of energy and battery for storage of energy. Based on Energy Density, Cycle life and C rate of the battery, Lithium ion which is space tested has been chosen for the mission.
Power distribution system is centralized and it is done through Voltage buses, generated through converters (DC-DC converters). Decision of switching of the buses is based on the location of the satellite and Energy available in the batteries, which is taken by OBDH subsystem of the satellite.
Components are protected from cosmic rays through tantalum coating. Constant monitoring of the current drawn and the voltage drop across the subsytems is monitored through current and voltage sensors, accordingly precautions are taken by the microcontroller.